Katharine Viner, most recently the deputy editor of The Guardian and editor-in-chief of Guardian US, has been named the new editor-in-chief of The Guardian.
Viner will succeed Alan Rusbridger when he steps down as editor-in-chief this summer.
“Kath rose up through the Guardian as an inspired magazine and features editor,” said Rusbridger, in a statement. “She took Australia by storm before heading up the Guardian’s American operation. She will bring immense experience, flair, warmth, imagination and formidable energy to her new role as editor of the Guardian.”
Viner joined The Guardian in 1997. She has previously worked as editor of its Weekend magazine, features editor and Saturday editor.
Solana Pyne (pictured) comes to Quartz from GlobalPost. She starts April 6 and will remain based in New York. Here’s today’s memo from Antunes:
Hello Quartz –
I’m thrilled to announce Solana Pyne is joining us as senior producer of our nascent video team, starting April 6 in our New York offices.
Solana will help lead our exploration of what video should be for Quartz, and how we can integrate boldly creative, smart video into our storytelling. She’s the first of several journalists to join us now for this effort.
She is a deeply talented journalist, who pairs a strong visual sensibility with a commitment to innovative storytelling. Solana has worked at just about every stage of the video production process, reporting and creating web video and multimedia stories from all over the world starting about a decade ago when editors still needed to be convinced such things were worth doing.
Solana joins us from GlobalPost, where she was most recently head of their global video operation. Her video, print and multimedia stories have won dozens of awards, including a Peabody, a Polk, two Edward R. Murrows, and an RFK along with awards from the National Press Club, SABEW and the Overseas Press Club.
Solana holds a master’s in science journalism, a bachelor’s degree in biology, and a bachelor of arts in literature, all from the University of California (Santa Cruz and San Diego.) After freelancing as a science and health writer, she headed to Phnom Penh to work for The Cambodia Daily and write about government corruption, illegal logging and mismanagement of international aid.
She first shot video professionally, during a stint at NY1. Hooked, a camera became an indispensable tool on her subsequent postings to North Africa and Brazil, and on assignments in South Asia, Japan and Zimbabwe. Journalistic highlights include the first release of footage shot moments after rebels captured Muammar Gaddafi, along with field reporting on climate change in the Amazon and mass migration to the world’s fastest growing mega city.
Solana speaks Spanish and Portuguese. You can follow her at @solanapyne.
Please join me in welcoming her.
Bill Saporito has been with Time magazine for a long time. He joined the publication as senior editor in 1996 and most recently was assistant managing editor, directing the publication’s coverage of business, the economy, personal finance and sports. His other roles have included chief consumer economics correspondent and money columnist.
Starting April 6, Saporito will have a new editorial home: Inc.. Per an announcement coming today from Jim Ledbetter, the Bucknell and Syracuse universities is joining Inc. as editor-at-large. He will be editing two of the publication’s main sections as well as writing features.
Saporito has also worked as an automobile reviewer and travel industry blogger for Money.com. Before Time, he was with Fortune magazine from 1984 through 1996. And it all started in grand journalistic fashion. Per an interview Saporito once did with his undergrad Alma Mater:
Saporito began his career as a copy boy in the New Jersey bureau of the New York Daily News. He compares that first job to a journalistic finishing school, where he learned to “write tight, bright and tonight.” He then wrote for trade magazines for a few years before moving to Fortune.
“I had no desire on earth to write about business,” he admits. “I always assumed I’d be chasing cops or chasing balls [as a sports reporter].”[Photo via: @bilsap]
Reuters is the latest news site to be blocked in China. The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal and Bloomberg News have all had their sites previously blocked. Users attempting to access Reuters’ English and Chinese language sites noticed the problem yesterday.
China’s Internet regulator, unsurprisingly, had nothing to offer on the issue.
Meanwhile, a Reuters spokesperson issued a statement. “Reuters is committed to practicing fair and accurate journalism worldwide. We recognize the great importance of news about China to all our customers, and we hope that our sites will be restored in China soon.”
We’ve always been fans of The New York Times’ NYT Now app. However, we seem to be in the minority on that. With its year anniversary approaching, the future of NYT Now is looking more ambiguous. In fact, it seems like it’s on the verge of getting folded into the main Times app.
Recently, Times CEO Mark Thompson admitted that NYT Now’s subscription numbers are low. This is something FishbowlNY foresaw when we first reviewed the app — it provides a few articles and asks people to pay $7.99 a month for access. We love NYT Now because we’re already Times subscribers and therefore get it for free. We thought asking casual readers to pay for limited content could be an issue.
In an interview with Ad Age, NYT Now’s editor Cliff Levy again admitted that subscriptions have disappointed and said big changes were coming.
“We’re actively working on NYT Now 2.0, and we’re starting to figure out what the business model is,” said Levy. Then, when discussing details of NYT Now’s staff, Levy seemed to indicate that the app might be swallowed by the main Times app.
“What we’ve learned from NYT Now is helping us advance the main New York Times app, which is getting a lot more editorial staff shortly,” explained Levy. “So stay tuned — there are going to be some major amazing improvements on the main New York Times app.”
We might be reading too much into that, but it sure seems like NYT Now is on its last legs. If its best feature — Our Picks, which is a feed of curated articles from other outlets — gets folded into the main app, then so be it.
However, we do have one request for Apple: Let the Times remove it from the horrible Newsstand app. Please. It’s useless and unintuitive. Grant the Times app — however it ends up looking — freedom.
The New York Daily News might have a new suitor. According to The New York Post, entrepreneur Jimmy Finkelstein is interested in buying the tabloid.
Finkelstein made his fortune in media. His News Communications company sold the New York Law Journal and National Law Journal to Steve Brill. In 2009, he and other investors formed Guggenheim Partners, which bought The Hollywood Reporter, Adweek and Billboard. Finkelstein sold his shares in 2013. Finkelstein currently owns The Hill.
If he makes an offer for the Daily News, Finkelstein’s main competition will be John Catsimatidis. Catsimatidis is rumored to be the frontrunner, even though he once banned the tabloid from his Gristedes chain.
Refinery29 is growing its politics and tech teams. Details are below.Ben Reininga has been promoted to deputy editor, politics. He was previously with NowThisNews. Meredith Clark joins as news writer, politics. Clark comes to Refinery29 from MSNBC, where she covered human rights and civil liberties issues. Kelly Bourdet has been promoted to director of technology, health and wellness. Bourdet was previously with Nerve.coma and Vice. Christina Bonnington joins Refinery29 as technology editor. She most recently served as a staff writer for Wired.com.
Body of Missing Reporter Found in New Jersey (WSJ)
David Christopher Bird, a Wall Street Journal reporter who was missing for more than a year, has been found dead near the site of his disappearance, New Jersey police said. FishbowlNY According to the WSJ, canoers found a body in northern New Jersey’s Passaic River on Wednesday. It was identified as Bird through dental records on Thursday, police said. New York Post An investigation into the cause of death is under way. A website launched by Bird’s anguished family said he went out for a walk after helping relatives take down the Christmas decorations, then never returned. Dozens of law-enforcement agencies were involved in the search over the past 14 months, from local police to the FBI. New York Daily News Police previously searched the area where the body was found, Long Hill Township Police chief Michael Mazzeo told the Daily News. Authorities combed the woods, river and train tracks near Bird’s home but found no leads after his disappearance. Politico / Dylan Byers on Media Bird had worked for the Journal, covering energy markets, for more than two decades.
Empire Finale Breaks Twitter, Sets Records (LostRemote)
And they say appointment viewing is dead. The two-hour finale of Empire was huge. According to Nielsen, the finale scored a 6.4 rating and 16.5 million viewers, which means the show’s ratings went up 11 percent since last week. Early reports are that the finale drove 2.4 million tweets. Deadline Wednesday night’s airing of the hip hop family drama delivered the best first-season result any new series on any broadcast network has had since the Shonda Rhimes-created Grey’s Anatomy ended its debut cycle on ABC in 2005. THR / The Live Feed Empire premiered Jan. 7 to a 3.8 rating among adults 18-49 and 9.9 million viewers. It subsequently grew its viewership every week for each of the 11 episodes that followed — and, with the exception last week’s penultimate outing, Empire also managed the same feat in the key demo. Variety The entire first season of Empire is now on Hulu, under a pact with Twentieth Century Fox Television giving the Internet TV site exclusive subscription video-on-demand rights to the show. CNN Its soundtrack scored a rare success this week, debuting in the No. 1 spot on Billboard’s top 200 album chart, topping Madonna’s Rebel Heart.
Reuters Names Kevin Krolicki Washington Bureau Chief (FishbowlNY)
Reuters has named Kevin Krolicki as its Washington bureau chief. Krolicki was most recently Reuters’ Tokyo bureau chief, a role he had held for the past three years. FishbowlDC Krolicki has been with Reuters since 1996 in many different roles, including West Coast equities editor-in-chief, West Coast bureau chief and Detroit bureau chief. Poynter / MediaWire Krolicki replaces Marilyn Thompson, who left the company in January to become a deputy editor at Politico. Krolicki’s appointment is the latest in a rapid succession of job moves at multiple news organizations as they shuffle staffers to cover the 2016 presidential campaign. Politico, Reuters, The New York Times, CNN, The Washington Post, The Associated Press and others have all made appointments in recent months in advance of the presidential contest.
MGM Touts Record Profits in 2014 (THR)
MGM Holdings on Thursday reported net income of $156 million for calendar year 2014, which chairman/CEO Gary Barber described as \"its highest annual profits in its modern history for the second consecutive year.\" Variety Revenue at the entertainment company behind 007 and The Hobbit hit $1.44 billion, down 5.8 percent from $1.53 billion in the previous year. Net income at the company topped out at $156 million for the calendar year ending Dec. 31, up 27 percent from $122.2 million in 2013. Deadline MGM’s financial results, delivered to debt-holders, are complicated by the acquisition in September of a 55 percent stake in United Artists Media Group — a joint venture with Mark Burnett, Roma Downey and Hearst Productions. With that in the mix, MGM generated earnings of $41.7 million, up 241.2 percent vs. the last three months of 2013, on revenues of $559.1 million, up 20.6 percent.
Michael Oreskes Named NPR News Chief (FishbowlNY)
Michael Oreskes has been named NPR’s senior VP of news and editorial director. Oreskes comes to NPR from the AP, where had most recently served as VP and senior managing editor. Poynter / MediaWire Oreskes replaces Chris Turpin, who was named interim senior vice president of news after Margaret Low Smith departed for The Atlantic. Turpin, who was previously the executive producer of \"All Things Considered,\" will become vice president of news at NPR in charge of news programs, newscasts, news operations and collaborative coverage, among other things. Politico / Dylan Byers on Media Oreskes has been vice president and senior managing editor of The Associated Press since 2008. Before AP, he was at The International Herald Tribune and spent more than two decades at The New York Times. NYT He will start his new job at the end of April, overseeing 200 newsrooms and 1,500 journalists at NPR member stations, the network said in a statement. NPR, which has been lauded for its efforts to expand on the Web, has 26 million radio listeners and more than 30 million unique visitors a month online, according to its own figures.
Politico Names Scott Rothrock Chief Technology Officer (FishbowlDC)
Scott Rothrock has been appointed Politico’s chief technology officer, according to a press release from the news company. Poynter / MediaWire Rothrock, formerly vice president of engineering for business intelligence company Appfluent, has also worked at The Washington Post, AOL, Cox and Verizon. Rothrock replaces Ryan Mannion, who left Politico for the digital magazine Ozy in June.
Time Makes Several Hires, Promotions (FishbowlNY)
Time has made several new hires and promotions. Julie Shapiro has been named a news editor on the global continuous publishing desk. She previously worked for DNAinfo. Capital New York The other hires include Bloomberg View engagement editor Kirsten Salyer, joining as deputy ideas editor; Dana Lacey, who worked at the software startup ScribbleLive before being named partnerships editor; freelance writer Eliza Berman, who joins as Time.com associate editor; Tyler Borcher, joining as audience engagement editor; and Fast Company editor assistant Miles Kohrman, arrived at Time as homepage editor.
Bloomberg Changes Editorial Management Structure (FishbowlNY)
Bloomberg LP has made some editorial management changes designed to unify the newsroom. In a memo to staffers, new Bloomberg editor-in-chief John Micklethwait announced that he was forming an editorial management committee. Poynter / MediaWire The committee will be composed of Micklethwait, deputy editor-in-chief Reto Gregori, and new editorial chief content officer Josh Tyrangiel, All main editors will now report directly to this committee. In addition, Bloomberg will physically move its digital news section next to the journalists who write for Bloomberg News.
Endemol Shine Hires Adrian Sexton as COO of U.S. Digital Unit (Variety)
Endemol Beyond USA, the digital division of Endemol Shine North America, has hired Adrian Sexton — formerly with Participant Media and Lionsgate — as chief operating officer. Deadline Endemol Beyond USA is focused on digital video distribution on channels such as AOL, Roku, Amazon Fire TV, Yahoo! and YouTube. Sexton, formerly EVP of digital for Participant, will oversee new strategic partnerships and investments, business development, strategy, sales and distribution opportunities.
Thomas Roberts Improves MSNBC Hours Double Digits (TVNewser)
In the two-and-a-half weeks since Thomas Roberts began anchoring the 1-3 p.m. ET hours, MSNBC has seen its viewership grow double digits compared to the programs which previously aired at that time.
7.3 Million Watch Sound of Music Special on ABC (TVNewser)
Diane Sawyer‘s 20/20 special The Untold Story of The Sound of Music tied CSI: Cyber in the two younger demos: adults 18-49 (1.4/5) and adults 25-54 (2.0/6) and averaged 7.32 million total viewers
CNN’s 2016 Team Grows, Adds Sara Murray (FishbowlDC)
Another day, another hire for CNN as the network has added Sara Murray to its ever-growing political team.
The Talk Edges The View in Total Viewers, Women 18-49 for First Time (Deadline)
For the second time, CBS’ The Talk has won the battle for total viewers over ABC’s embattled The View. This time, the CBS talker also topped its ABC rival in the key women 18-49 demographic, marking the first time The Talk has come up on top in both categories the same week.
Top Gear Co-Presenters Refuse to Continue Show Without Jeremy Clarkson (Variety)
Top Gear presenters James May and Richard Hammond refused to shoot the show while their co-host Jeremy Clarkson was suspended. The Guardian Clarkson has launched into an expletive-laden tirade against BBC bosses, following his suspension from Top Gear. Clarkson hinted that he expected to be sacked as a result of the internal investigation into an alleged fracas with a program producer.
Viacom to Rebrand U.K.’s Channel 5 (THR)
Viacom’s Viacom International Media Networks said Thursday that it has named Kerry Taylor the first-ever chief marketing officer for its operations managed out of the U.K.
In the wake of the March 14 carbon monoxide poisoning death of deaf and partially blind 49-year-old Los Angeles resident Wendy Blackstone, her older sister Jill, 52, a talk show and court TV series producer, was hospitalized for two days, interrogated by police for another two, and released.
On the heels of that sensational sequence, some even more sensational details were shared last night by the Daily Mail tandem of Joel Christie in New York and Andy Tillet in Los Angeles:
Neighbors exclusively told Daily Mail Online they heard through the police that Wendy had died by asphyxiation and were led to believe the incident had been an attempted double suicide, possibly by trying to poison themselves with fumes from their car.
Stephanie Cohen, 60, who lives across the street from the sisters in Studio City, said: “The police were here for 12 to 14 hours on Saturday. We were told they were investigating a double suicide, an attempt, and one of the people died.”
According to the Daily Mail report, the sisters’ current residence was set to be demolished and they were having trouble finding a new place to live, largely because of Wendy’s housebound condition. Signs on their current home seen Wednesday indicate the property was slated for imminent razing.
Another Studio City neighbor, Ron Ross, 81, told the paper that a close friend of the Blackstones said the siblings had tried to kill themselves in a suicide pact. A report by TMZ suggests a BBQ rather than a car was used to generate the carbon monoxide fimes.
Although Jill Blackstone has been labeled in many reports as a “Jerry Springer Producer,” she worked on that show 20 years ago. Springer told the Daily Mail he had nothing but fond memories of her.
Media in my ‘hood. 2 dudebros in BMWs/tight jeans want to fly drones over the house where my neighbor Wendy Blackstone died. I feel sick.
— Jessica M Sutherland (@sutherlandjm) March 19, 2015
Imagine… a combined total of seventeen print editions.
Imagine… an Asian media enterprise with a chief executive named Bruce Lee.
Sound too good to be 2015 true? Think again. Per a New York Times international edition report by Jane A. Peterson, Singapore-based quarterly Revolution is connecting with luxury watch collectors in that country and well beyond. Ten years after launch, the magazine is widely acknowledged as being this niche market’s media leader:
Revolution owns six editions, has franchised 11 more and hopes to find four more franchisees for new markets. “Niche titles still do extremely well,” Lee said. “People consume media today like they are fishing in a barrel. Everything they consume is concentrated and targeted to their interest.”
He said the magazine’s global print reach, which factors in readership rather than just issue sales, totals 350,000 each quarter while digital attracts another 100,000 to 120,000 readers.
Revolution’s largest reader base is in mainland China. The company is currently redesigning its website, iPad version and Apps, in concert with the timepiece industry’s gradual increase of digital ad-dollars. Read the full article here.[Cover image via: revo-online.com]
LostRemote: LinkedIn, the social network that will never, ever stop emailing you, has a new video series.
TVSpy: Dale Hansen, a sports anchor at a Dallas ABC affiliate, has some things to say about the Cowboys signing Greg Hardy. None of them are supportive.
FishbowlDC: CNN’s 2016 team continues to grow.
Melanie Grayce West is a Wall Street Journal reporter based in New York. She’s also a wife and mother, and it is on that end of the spectrum that today’s terrible bit of assigned news no doubt resonates most.
Per her item, the body of colleague David Christopher Bird, missing for more than a year, was found this week and has been positively identified:
Canoers found a body in northern New Jersey’s Passaic River on Wednesday. It was identified as Mr. Bird through dental records on Thursday, the police said.
The discovery marks the end of more than a year of searching for Mr. Bird, 55 years old. He worked for Dow Jones for more than two decades, most recently covering energy markets.
Mr. Bird leaves behind a wife and two teenage children.
Our sincere condolences to Bird’s family and members of the Wall Street Journal/Dow Jones fraternity. RIP.
I love to say Sacre Bleu! #itsmy2cents
— Larry King (@kingsthings) March 16, 2015
Larry King, the iconic broadcaster who refuses to stop working, has a different way of using Twitter than the rest of us. When King wants to tweet, he leaves a voicemail for an assistant, who then sends the tweet. Yes, we’re serious.
“He pops open the flip phone stored in the shirt pocket between his suspender straps and calls the number for a voicemail set up specifically for this purpose,” reports WaPo. “Then he dictates a thought that will be picked up by an assistant and transcribed onto his @KingsThings Twitter account. And nearly 2.6 million followers are there to receive it.”
To recap: King is old.
Once upon a time, the LA punk rock scene coursed through a bar called The Masque and a publication known as Slash magazine. The fury of these late 1970s flashpoints is at the center of Punk Elegies, a new memoir by Allan MacDonell (pictured) being launched tonight at Skylight Books in Los Angeles.
MacDonell wrote for Slash magazine. And a few years ago, when he reminisced with the former owner of The Masque, his collection of 33 stories started to take shape.
\"About 15… 18 years ago, I started writing down these notes on these [punk rock era] anecdotes that I would tell myself,\" MacDonell explains via telephone to FishbowlNY. \"I collected about a hundred, and I didn’t think I was going to do anything with them. But then I had a conversation with Brendan Mullen, who used to own The Masque.\"
\"I had a falling out with him, but then recently reconnected,\" he continues. \"I realized we both had this sweet nostalgia for that time and that my feeling was shared by not just him but a lot of other people as well. There’s a kind of disappointment about what happened and how it all played out, and yet, at the same time, there’s this feeling that it was one of the best times of our lives.\"
\"I told one story to a comedian I knew and he said: ‘You should write a book.’ He said, ‘If you’re going to tell me 20 stories about this kind of stuff – like, cheating the angel of death and going on a job interview – I want to read them all.’\"
When asked who, if anyone, has since embodied the spirit of the punk rock scene laid out in four sections in Punk Elegies, the author answers: Larry Flynt, his former boss and lynchpin of MacDonell’s 2006 book Prisoner of X.
\"I’ve been mourning the death of punk since 1980,\" he confesses. \"But to my mind, Flynt was a lot like the punk movement, whether he chose it or not. He had no corporate advertising to answer to, so he was his own guy. He could challenge everybody.\"
\"When Washington was considering impeaching Clinton, we ran an ad in the Washington Post offering to pay people for information about their affairs with high-ranking government officials,\" he adds. \"We got all these responses, and what ended up is we got the designated Speaker of the House [Bob Livingston] to resign from Congress, on the very same day that Clinton was impeached.\"
\"In the media that day, the shared headlines were ‘Clinton Impeached’ and ‘Livingston Resigns.’ That to me is totally punk rock.\"
MacDonell says though his book is a love letter to a lost time rather than a tell-all, he chose to change the names of three people mentioned to give them the option of \"viable denial,\" as well as to reflect the fact that several separate incidents were \"cross-pollinated.\" Punk Elegies: True Tales of Death Trip Kids, Wrongful Sex, and Trial by Angel Dust will be officially released April 21.
P.S. MacDonell recently contributed some awards season coverage to our sister publication The Hollywood Reporter, including a fun look at some of the ceremony’s most memorable acceptance speeches.
[Author photo, jacket cover courtesy: Rare Bird Books]
Welcome back to another edition of FishbowlNY’s weekly Cover Battle. This round we have Field & Stream taking on Essence.
Field & Stream’s latest cover features an awesome illustration by Jon Contino. If this doesn’t get you in the mood to go fishing, think about this: Fishing is really just an excuse to hang out with friends and day drink. Now get out there and tighten up that lure! Or whatever.
Essence’s cover, meanwhile, has the advantage of a cute baby. Here is Kelly Rowland posing with her son, Titan. You’ll notice that Rowland’s husband — Tim Weatherspoon — is sort of an afterthought. Too bad for him, but it’s tough to compete with baby ears.
So readers, which cover is better? You can vote, comment, or do both.
Although the active search for Max Maisel, the missing son of ESPN senior writer Ivan Maisel, concluded on Monday, the Rochester Police Department investigation continues. On Tuesday, via a released statement, the family eloquently thanked local law enforcement officials and other agencies for their combined efforts:
They searched when treacherous weather said they shouldn’t. They searched when common sense said they shouldn’t. They combed some sections of the waterfront more than a dozen times. We appreciate their collective effort and the resources that the people of Rochester and Monroe County have devoted to finding Max…
The caring and concern we have felt in Rochester has made us appreciate this community in a way that we couldn’t have imagined. In this, the darkest hour of our lives, we have seen so much good in people. We will never forget your kindness.
Max, a talented third-year photography student at the Rochester Institute of Technology, knew the area at the confluence of the Genesee River and Lake Ontario where he disappeared well. Growing up, he spent many a summer and holiday weekend at a house owned by his aunt just a mile away.
Despite a lack of official closure, the Maisels must presume the worst. A memorial has been scheduled for Friday March 27 at Congregation Bnai Israel in Bridgeport, CT. Anyone interested in attending is being asked to contact the ESPN writer directly (ivan-dot-maisel at gmail). The Maisel family has been – and remains – in our thoughts.
[Photo of Max and family at his sister’s Stanford University graduation voa: @whec_rfath]
Michael Oreskes has been named NPR’s senior VP of news and editorial director. Oreskes comes to NPR from the AP, where had most recently served as VP and senior managing editor. He had been with the AP since 2008.
Prior to his time with the AP, Oreskes served as The International Herald Tribune’s executive editor for three years. He also spent four years with The New York Times as deputy managing editor and assistant managing editor.
In related news, NPR has promoted Chris Turpin to VP, news.
Us Weekly is already getting criticized for a cover implying that Katie Holmes and Jamie Foxx are dating, so it might as well double up.
The magazine published an EXCLUSIVE, featuring Kendall Jenner “breaking her silence” about her father Bruce Jenner’s decision to transition to a woman. The only problem is that Kendall claims she didn’t speak to Us Weekly about the subject. That’s, well… That’s a big problem.
Us Weekly has Jenner saying the following about her father:
I love my dad. He’s always been there for me and my sisters. He’s a wonderful man. And just because he’s changing shoes now, so to speak, doesn’t make him less wonderful. I will always love my dad, whether he’s a man or a woman.
Jenner took to Twitter to deny that this exchange happened.
how is it legal for someone to "quote" someone and publish it if in fact you never said what was quoted.
— Kendall Jenner (@KendallJenner) March 18, 2015
Shame on US Weekly for making up quotes. I NEVER said those things. I never spoke to them.
— Kendall Jenner (@KendallJenner) March 18, 2015
Us Weekly has some (more) explaining to do. So to speak.